Indus Basin Organization
About Indus Basin
The Indus basin extends over an area of 11,65,500 sq. km and lies in Tibet (China), India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The drainage area lying in India is 321289 sq. km. which is nearly 9.8% of the total geographical area of the country. It is bounded on the north by the Karakoram and Haramosh ranges, on the east by the Himalayas, on the west by the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges and on the south by the Arabian sea. The basin lies in the States of Jarnmu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The State-wise distribution of the drainage area is given below:
Drainage area (sq. km)
|Jammu and Kashmir||
The upper part of the basin lying in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh is mostly mountain ranges and narrow valleys. In Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan the basin consists of vast plains which are the fertile granary of the country. The principal soil types found in the basin are submontane, brown hill and alluvial soils. The culturable area of the basin is about 9.6 M.ha which is 4,9% of the total culturable area of the country.
River System Indus river rises from Mansarovar in Tibet at an elevation of about 5182 rn and flows for about 2880 km upto its outfall into the Arabian sea. The length of the river in India is 1114 km. Its principal tributaries are the Sutlej, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum. Click for basin map .
Indus Water Treaty
The water resource development in the Indus basin is governed by various provision of the Indus Water Treaty, 1960. According to this Treaty, the water of the Eastern Rivers, namely, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej, shall be available for the unrestricted use by India. India has also been permitted to make from the Western Rivers, domestic non-consumptive uses, uses for run-of-the river hydroelectric plants and specified agricultural use and construction of storage works.
The hydropower potential of the basin has been assessed as 19988 MW at 60% load factor. Out of 190 schemes identified in the basin, 18 schemes with a total installed capacity of 3517 MW are in operation and 14 schemes with a total installed capacity of 5626 MW are in various stages of construction. These 32 schemes together account for nearly 28% of the assessed potential of the basin. A major part of the potential, therefore, remains to be developed.
Important Projects in Indus Basin
Some of the important projects in this basin are:
- Bhakra-Nangal Project
- Beas project
- Harike barrage
- Rajasthan canal
- Ranjit Sagar dam
- Sutlej-Yamuna Iink canal
- Ravi-Tawi lift irrigation
Central Water Commission Network
There are 13 Gauge and Discharge sites in the basin maintained by CWC. The state governments have also established around 79 G&D sites in this basin. However CWC have no Flood forecasting station in the basin. Efforts are ongoing to establish a FF stations on river Sutluj.
The Indus Commission has been setup by Ministry of Water Resources , Govt of India under Indus Water Treaty to look into aspects of implementation of Treaty obligations. The Bhakra Beas Management Board was constituted for administration and management inter-state Bhakra-Beas Projects. It regulates the supply of water and power to the basin states i.e. Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.